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Indian Crafts >> Papier Mache
Papier Mache
Indian Crafts - Papier Mache
History of Papier Mache

The vessels and containers made out with papier mache have continued to be made and used in many villages as an house hold activity by women. Items for the storage of grains and containers for keeping several household goods were made by women in the household. This craft remained unnoticed and toys were made only during rituals and festivals. Now a days, toys and vessels are made regularly.

The articles made out with papier-mache are used as a house-holds activities and decorative items. It is a traditional craft in Jaipur.

Successful experiments have been made with replicas of famous temples, forts and gates in papier mache. Important centres for this craft are Gwalior, Ujjain, Indore and Harda.

Papier mache is not a traditional crafts to this state. The Shantiniketan school of artists did some pioneering work in introducing this craft in West Bengal. Today quite a number of craftsmen in and around Calcutta have taken up the craft and their products have found a market for their beauty in designs and excellence in craftsmanship.

Papier-mache is locally known as Kari Kamandari. In the Moghul times its silken surface was found as an ideal ground for miniature painting, as also for preparing important state documents. Papier-mache in Kashmir is never fully pulped unlike in other countries like Europe.

Papier Mache is found in various parts of Bihar. In Moghal times its silken surface was found as an ideal ground for miniature painting, as also for preparing important state documents.
Fine Art
Papier mache is traditional household craft of many villages of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and Punjab.

The products include animals and birds particularly cocks, parrots and pigeons papier - mache folk products especially bowls are pleasing.

Papier-Mache is traditional households craft of many villages of Madhya Pradesh. A wide range of products are available in papier mache, such as human figures, birds, animals, caricatures, statues of gods and goddesses, models of khajuraho and Sanchi and objects based on folk motifs.

The craftsmen of Purulia make a variety of masks, mythological in character, that are used during folk festivals by the chan dancers of Orissa.

There is a strong Persian flavour about the designs as also the decorations flowers and birds of all varieties including the heart - shaped Kashmiri Chinar Leaf, the iris, rose, tulip andhyacinth, etc. In special orders, gold and silver leaves are also used on larger articles, figures and objects like the houseboat, inseparable from a Kashmiri scene, are depicted. Land - scaping is also done on wall plaques, trays, large bowls, screens, writing sets, etc.

Masks used in the chhau dance represent the main item of production while figures of different kinds of birds for decorative purposes are also made Madhubani women made various types of containers for storage of everyday items.
Procedure
Waste paper is soaked in water for about 10-15 days, and beaten up with a hammer. To this pulp, gum is mixed thoroughly. Multani mitti is added and kneaded to get a pulp paste. This pulp is beaten so that a roller can roll it. These sheets are pressed on to the required mould many times by a invert of a broken pitcher and dried for some time. The mould is separated after drying and the object is taken out. This object is in a raw form and is finished, polished and coloured. File is used to smoothen it. Also a thin mixture of white clay is applied for further softening. Animal and birds forms are made by freehand.

Waste paper is soaked in water for about 10-15 days, and beaten up with a hammer. To this pulp, gum is mixed thoroughly. Clay is added and kneaded to get a pulp paste. This pulp is beaten so that a roller can roll it. These sheets are pressed on to the required mould, many times by a invert of a broken pitcher and dried for some time. This mould is separated after drying and the object is taken out. This object is in raw form and is finished, polished and coloured. File is used to smoothen it. Also a thin mixture of clay is applied for further smoothening. Animals and birds form are made by freehand.

Waste paper is soaked in water for about 10-15 days and beaten up with a hammer. To this pulp, gum is mixed thoroughly. Mitti is added and kneaded to get a pulp paste. This pulp is beaten so that a roller can roll it. These sheets are pressed on to the required mould many times and dried for some time. The mould is separated after drying and the object is taken out. This object is in raw form and is then finished, polished and coloured. File is used to smoothen it. Also a thin mixture of clay is applied for further smoothening. Figures of animals and birds are made by freehand.

Papier-mache articles are made of waste paper applied in layers and pressed together on wooden modules. Waste paper is soaked in water for about 10-15 days, and beaten up with hammer. To this pulp, gum is mixed thoroughly. Multani-mitti is added and kneaded to get a pulp paste. This pulp is beaten so that a roller can roll it. These sheets are pressed on the required mould, many times invert of a broken pitcher and dried for some time. The mould is separated after drying and the object is taken out. This object is in a raw form and is finished, polished and colored. File is used to smoothen it. Also a thin mixture of white clay is applied for further smoothening. Today, to save time , pulp mixed with starch is alternated with thick layer of paper to get the required thickness with less labour. Imagination runs wild as craftsmen breath life into this mould, bringing out a variety of expressions on masks.

Papier-mache in Kashmir is never fully pulped. It is softened by water and the desired thickness obtained by pasting on the mould layer over layer. The object under preparation is kept covered in a wet cotton cloth and while in a moist state covered with a thin layer of plaster of paris mixed with glue, then smoothened and burnished to a fine finish with a wet stone, after which the ground colour, zamin as it is called is applied. The ground may be in colour or gold or tin foil, it is burnished with a piece of agate after drying then fine verdigris powder is applied to lend a subtle greenish tint to the metallic background, or with a lac preparation where a red tint is needed. On coloured grounds, black, blue, rose, green, violet, brown, almond and dark olive are generally used.

Papier mache articles are made of waste paper applied in layers and pressed together on wooden modules. Waste paper is soaked in water for about 10 to 15 days, and beaten up with hammer. To this pulp, gum is mixed thoroughly. Multani mitti is added and kneaded to get a pulp paste. This pulp is beaten so that a roller can roll it. These sheets are pressed on the required mould many times by invert of a broken picture and dried for some time. The mould is separated after drying and the object is taken out. The object is in raw form and is finished, polished and colored. File is used to smoothen it. Also a thin mixture of white clay is applied for further smoothing.
Resources
Basic Material : Waste paper, gum, white clay, colours, brush, kakar resin, multani mitti (fullers earth), china clay, chalk powder
Decorative Material : Jute or otherfabric
Colouring Material : Natural colours

Basic Material : Waste paper, gum, clay / mitti, colours, brush, chalk powder, resin, jute
Decorative Material : Fabric for ornamentation

Basic Material : Waste paper, gum, mitti / clay, colours, brush, chalk powder, jute

Decorative Material : Fabric for ornamentation

Basic Material : paper pulp, glue, wall plaster, brush, rounded stone, tissue paper, multani mitti, colours, waste paper, kakar resin, fuller earth, fabric for ornamentation, hammer file, white clay

Basic Material : Paper pulp, layers of polished paper, verdigris powder, pure gold, glue, plaster of paris, varnish, tin foil.

Basic Material : Paper pulp, glue, wall plaster, colours, waste paper, file multani mitti, mitti
Equipments
Hammer, roller, files, knife, stone slab, scissors

Hammer, roller, files, knife, stone slab, scissors, polish, bamboo, wire, thread

Hammer, roller, file, knife, stone slab, scissors, moulds, polish, bamboo, wire, tread.





brush, hammer
Artifacts
Toys, baskets, trays, birds and animal figure, caricatures, bullock cart, animals figures like elephant, horse, grain storage bin, bucket, etc.

Figures of animals and birds, bowls.

Human figures, birds, animals, caricatures, statues of Gods and Goddesses, models of Khajuraho and Sanchi, and objects based on folk motifs

Masks, boxes, jars, trays, bowls, candle stick stands, pensets, matchbox covers, powder boxes, toilet sets, lamp stands, finger bowls, powder boxes

writing table sets, dressing table ware, bangles, lamp stands, cups, bowls, vases, boxes wall plaques, panels for ceilings, screens and cabinets.

Figurine of birds, containers, figures of wedding pairs, winnowing grain, measuring bowls, storage jars

Indian Crafts : History of Papier Mache