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Indian Crafts >> Copper And Brass Wares
Copper And Brass Wares
History of Copper And Brass Wares

Copper and bronze are perhaps the earliest non-ferrous metals, which were shaped by man into tools, due to their lightness and resistance to corrosion. Initially 5 metals were used for icon-making copper, silver, gold, brass and lead. Today due to scarcity of raw materials, and economic considerations only copper, brass and lead are used. Indian metal craft plays an important part in the religions and community life of people. Metal worker karmara, occupies a high position in the society.

Copper and bronze are perhaps the earliest non-ferrous metals, which were shaped by man into tools, due to their lightness and resistance to corrosion. Initially 5 metals were used for icon-making copper, silver, gold, brass and lead. Today due to scarcity of raw materials and economic considering only copper, brass and lead are used. Indian metal craft plays an important part in the religions and community life of people. Metal workers occupy a high position in the society.
Fine Art
Tamta Mohalla is the main area where the metal workshops are located in Almorah. The raw material for making the copper vessels is brought from Moradabad and Delhi. Nainital, Dharchulla, Moradabad , Nepal are the main markets for sale. Recently there has been a massive shift in the products. Earlier the products were confined to the traditional forms. Now wide range ofnew products and forms have opened the doors for the export. Etawah is renowned for its lotas (little water pots). Human and animal forms are made at Aligarh.

Tamta Mohalla is the main area where the metal workshops are located in Almorah. The raw material for making the copper vessels is brought from Moradabad and Delhi. Nainital, Dharchulla, Moradabad, Nepal is the main market for sale. Recently there has been a massive shift in the products. Earlier the products were confined to the traditional forms. Now wide range of new products and forms has opened the doors for the export. Etawah is renowned for its lotas (little water pots). Human and animal forms are made at Aligarh
Procedure
The copper/brass ware are made by the hollow casting technique. A clay model of the object is made. It is covered with a thin coating of wax. This mould is rotated on a lathe. Due to the heat generated by the friction, the wax is spread over the surface. A paste of burnt clay is coated on the wax coating to keep the wax intact. A hole is drilled on the outer surface of the mould. With the ignition of fire, the wax melts and flows out, and molten metal is poured into this empty space. Successive heating and dipping in water tempers the metal object. Plate/vessels are made by hammering and shaping the sheet along with the annealing and tempering processes. Ganga-Jamuni style i.e., blending of brass and copper along with German silver is the peculiarity of this area. Eta, Etawah, Jhansi, Mainpuri manufacture vessels by hollow casting.

The copper/brass wares are made by the hollow casting technique. A clay model of the object is made. It is covered with a thin coating of wax. This mould is rotated on a lathe. Due to the heat generated by the friction, the wax is spread over the surface. A paste of burnt clay is coated on the wax coating to keep the wax intact. A hole is drilled on the outer surface of the mould. With the ignition of fire, the wax melts and flows out, and the molten metal is poured into this empty space. Successive heating and dipping in water tempers the metal object. Plate/ Vessels are made by hammering and shaping the sheet along with the annealing and tempering processes. Ganga Jamuna styles i.e., blending of brass and copper along with German silver is the peculiarity of this area. Eta, Etawah, Jhansi, Mainpuri manufacture vessels by hollow casting.
Resources
Basic Material : Copper metal, clay, wax.

Basic Material : Brass, wax, dhund (resin) , clay.
Equipments
Hammer, chisel, lathe,

Files, mould.
Artifacts
Pots for storing water, water filters, plates, planters, containers to keep articles for worship etc., gagar, tolla, parat, thal, kalash, ritual items, animal /human forms

Containers, rath (chariot), icons, gods-goddesses

Indian Crafts : History of Copper And Brass Wares