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Indian Crafts >> Bandhani
Bandhani
Indian Crafts - Bandhani
History of Bandhani

Bandhani is an ancient art practised in many places in Rajasthan. The wide variety was evolved over the centuries because of its close links with the religious and social customs of the different people. Before the development of synthetic alizarine in Europe, Indian fabric were dyed in natural dyes extracted from indigo leaves for blue, al and turmeric roots for yellow, pomegranate skin and lac for red, iron - rust for black and so on. Rajasthan is one of the most important centre of tie and dye textile. Each area, each caste and each tribe has its special designs.

Before the development of synthetic alizarin in Europe, Indian fabrics were dyed in natural dyes extracted from indigo leaves for blue, al and turmeric roots for yellow, pomegranate skin and lac for red, iron-rust for black and so on.
Fine Art
Jaipur, Udaipur, Bikaner and Ajmer in Rajasthan, are among the well- known centres producing odhnis, saris and turbans in bandhani. Woollen shawls are tie - dyed by the khatris and worn by Rabari women. Suhagadi - yellow dots on chocolate brown is worn after marriage and before a woman first born, while the satbanteli red dots on black is worn after her first child. The bagida pattern and colour combination is traditionally worn only by harijan women.

The common design is chains of grains represented by dots on the body called the dana pattern. The pallu, which is tucked inside known as the utaru pallu, starts with a red background after which there is a continuous repeat of semicircle motifs. The pallu that goes over the head called chavdhan pallu, has two additional bands, one of which has the same above mentioned motif, but the other dancing figures. The borders have only zig zags. When the chunari body is red the borders and pallus are indigo blue and vice-versa. Another bandhani product is large - sized wrap called pillya used by women as an upper garment. It is folded lengthwise on one end, tucked at the left side of the skirt, while the other one goes over the back and then the head. Its ground colour is red which is fully filled with motifs such as leaves, flowers and dolls in the form of two big circles side by side. The same motifs are repeated on the border and pallu but singly, and detached in linear design.
Procedure
Dyeing was accomplished by the tie - resist method as in bandhana and laheria where the patterns are made up of innumerable dots and weaves respectively. Usually men do the dyeing while women do the tying, which is most painstaking, each dot being as tiny as a pin-head.The cloth is first washed and bleached to prepare it for absorbing the dyes. After this, it is then sent to the bandhani, the women who does the tying, lifts a small portion of the fabric and tightly ties a thread around it. The more miniscule the raised fabric, the finer the bandhana. The tied textiles is then dipped in the light colour first while the tied areas retain the original ground colour. If a second dye is required, the areas to be retained in the first dye are tied for resist and the cloth dipped in a darker dye. This process is repeated, if several colours are to be combined.Laheria refers to the wavy pattern of a fabric processed in the tie dye technique. The material is rolled diagonally and certain portions resisted by lightly binding threads at a short distance from one another before the cloth is dyed. If the distance is shorter, the skill required in preventing one colour from spilling into the other. The process of dyeing is repeated until the requisite number of colour is obtained. For a chequered pattern the fabric is opened and diagonally rolled again from the opposite corners, the rest of the process remaining the same. When oil of sunflower, castor or linseed is heated over fire for more than 12 hours and cast into water, a thick residue known as roghan is produced. The printing of residue on cloth with coloured powder, gold or silver dust is known as khari or tinsel work.

Tying of the border is a special process known as sevo bandhavo. The border is tied according to the desired pattern by passing the thread from one end to the other in loose stitch so as to bring the entire portion together by pulling the thread from one end. The border portion is then covered up. Some sarees have broad matching and contrasting borders. The same applies also to the pallus.
Resources
Basic Material : Red ochre solution, thread, khari (gold or silver dust).
Colouring Material : dye colours, coloured powder, roghan.

Basic Material : Red ochre solution, thread, coloured powder
Colouring Material : Dye colours
Equipments
Pointed nail
Artifacts
Saris, woollen, shawls, scarves, handkerchiefs, dupattas, odhnis, turbans, suhagadi, satbanteli.

Bed-spreads, table cloths, jajams (floor-coverings), quilt covers, bed - cover, lungis, chunaries, odhnis, pillya

Indian Crafts : History of Bandhani